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Student Talent Bank Entrepreneurship Glossary

Entrepreneurship

“Entrepreneurship is when you act upon opportunities and ideas and transform them into value for others. The value that is created can be financial, cultural, or social (FFE-YE, 2012).” [1]

Entrepreneurship education

  1. Education about entrepreneurship: educating students about entrepreneurship as a discipline (generally understood in narrow terms as starting new ventures)
  2. Education for entrepreneurship: training of aspiring entrepreneurs focusing on the practical skills necessary to start-up and manage a small business.
  3. Education through entrepreneurship: which corresponds to this hands-on value creation proactive where learners develop the capacity to act upon opportunities and ideas and turn them into value for others

 

To act entrepreneurially

To turn ideas into action through creativity, innovation, and risk-taking as well as the ability to plan and manage projects. It’s a mind-set which would allow pupils to approach every opportunity, goal or challenges with the same curiosity and creativity, regardless of the context, subject, and situation.

To teach entrepreneurially

  • Entrepreneurship education is more than preparation on how to run a business. It is about how to develop the entrepreneurial attitudes, skills and knowledge which, in short, should enable a student to ‘turn ideas into action’.
  • Teachers cannot teach how to be entrepreneurial without themselves being entrepreneurial.
  • Entrepreneurial competences require active methods of engaging students to release their creativity and innovation.
  • Entrepreneurial competency and skills can be acquired or built only through hands-on, real life learning experiences.
  • Entrepreneurial skills can be taught across all subjects as well as a separate subject.

Active learning

Active learning is a form of learning in which teaching strives to involve students in the learning process more directly than in other methods. A student-led approach, which means that they are the drivers of the learning process. When you invite students to actively participate in the learning environment, they take more responsibility for their performance in the course. Similarly, when they have an opportunity to make decisions about what they learn and how they use that knowledge, students see a course as more valuable and more directly related to their goals.

Challenge/inquiry–based learning

Challenge-based learning activities are a form of problem solving that aim at solving real-life issues. It offers students the opportunity to learn by doing through cooperation with others. Challenge-based increases student engagement and commitment. The combination of reflection on a real-world situation and proposing solutions to the identified challenge allows students to engage in experiential learning.

Challenge-based learning as an educational movement stemmed from the need to tackle disengagement in students. Surveys to find out the reasons for which young people left school highlighted the fact that many failed to see a connection between what was taught and real-life. Therefore, the movement tried to address the engagement of students in order to prevent them from dropping out from school. If students felt that lessons were far away from real-life problems, challenge-based learning provided them the means to understand problems and propose viable solutions.

Independent learning

Independent learning is when an individual is able to think, act and pursue their own studies autonomously, without the same levels of support you receive from a teacher at school.

Project-based learning

Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems.[1] 

Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem.[2] 

It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning

Non-traditional learning environment (real-life situations, out of classroom)

In this case school is not an isolated environment. Just the opposite, constant interaction and connection with real-life problems is maintained.  Entrepreneurial people easily spot and solve everyday problems, propose solutions to current needs.

Social and emotional learning

The process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions.[2]

This concept highlights the importance of emotions, values and social skills within the learning process. Learning is much more than memorizing content. Learning happens in the wider context of the school, family and social environment. 

Student’s day-to-day interactions with peers and adults (be it teachers, parents, etc.) require:

  • Self-awareness: conscious knowledge of one's own character, feelings, motives, and desires;
  • Self-management: the ability to regulate one’s emotions to handle stress, control impulses, and tackle obstacles; to set and monitor progress toward goals;
  • Social awareness: the ability to empathize with others; to understand and adapt to the social and ethical context and norms;
  • Relationship skills: the ability to communicate with others clearly, listen actively, cooperate, tackle conflict situations, and seek and offer help when needed;
  • Responsible decision-making: the ability to make informed choices, taking into consideration ethical standards, safety concerns, social norms, evaluation of consequences of various actions, and the well-being of self and others.

Mindfulness

Mindfulness is a type of practice, which helps concentration and affects our perception. Mindfulness is the ability to be fully present, aware of where you are and what you’re doing. Mindfulness can help students cope with stress, increase their attention span, memory and focus, develop ability to regulate their emotions. Students live in a fast-paced world, which often challenges their senses, emotions and social skills. Mindfulness can help students to learn how to slow down and sharpen their physical and emotional senses.

Empathy

Empathy is, at its simplest, awareness of the feelings and emotions of other people. It is a key element of Emotional Intelligence, the link between self and others, because it is how we as individuals understand what others are experiencing as if we were feeling it ourselves.

Empathic responding

Empathic responding is when the teacher reflects (consistently) to the student BOTH the feeling that the student is experiencing and the reason for that feeling (as expressed by the student). Many of the messages that students send to teachers involve the way they feel about their classes or student life. If you are able to communicate back to a student that you understand these feelings, then a caring, trusting relationship can be established. Communicating that you understand another person’s feelings is a powerful way of establishing rapport and is a necessary ingredient in any helping relationship.[3]

Self- disclosure

Self-disclosure is a process of communication by which one person reveals information about themselves to another. The information can be descriptive or evaluative, and can include thoughts, feelings, aspirations, goals, failures, successes, fears, and dreams, as well as one's likes, dislikes, and favourites.[4]

Leadership

A leader is someone, who is able to motivate a group of people (colleagues, fellow students, employees, citizens, etc.) to act towards achieving a common goal. The leader facilitates collaboration and encourages transformation.

Empathetic leader

A leader who has greater awareness of other people’s needs, perceptions, motivation. An empathetic leader demonstrates social and emotional intelligence and is able to adapt their leadership style to increase collaboration and create trust.

Mindful leader

A leader who demonstrates mindful awareness, observing and listening without judgement. A mindful leader fosters patience and trust within the team and encourages compassion and self-compassion.

Collaborative Learning

The didactic use of small groups where the students work together to obtain the best learning outcomes in themselves and in others. It promotes the development of skills, attitudes, and values in students.

Digital competencies

Digital competence involves the confident and critical use of electronic media for work, leisure and communication. These competencies are related to logical and critical thinking, high-level information management skills, and well-developed communication skills.

Digital communication

Communication using digital technology. Various modes of communication exist, e.g. synchronous communication (real-time communication, e.g. using Skype or video chat or Bluetooth) and asynchronous ones (not concurrent communication, e.g. email, forum to send a message, SMS) using, for example, one to one, one to many, or many to many modes.

Peer Learning

A reciprocal learning experience that involves students sharing knowledge, ideas, and experiences among each other. It can be viewed as a strategy to take students from an independent form of learning to one that is interdependent or mutual.

Problem-Based Learning

A didactic approach in which a small group of students meets with a tutor to analyse and propose a solution to a real or potentially real problem related to their physical and social environment. The objective does not focus on solving the issue but rather on using it as a trigger so that the students cover the learning objectives and develop personal and social competencies.

Project-Based Learning

Didactic technique focused on the collaborative efforts of a group of students to design and develop a project as a way to achieve the learning objectives of one or more disciplines and to develop competencies related to the management of actual projects.

Problem-Solving Skills

Problem solving involves the ability to identify and analyse problem situations whose method of solution is not immediately obvious. It also includes the willingness to engage in such situations in order to achieve our full potential as constructive and reflective citizens (OECD, 2014, p. 12).

Student-centred learning

Student-centred learning can be seen as a model that puts the student in the focus of the learning process. The student plays an important role in own learning strategies and learning styles. Student-centred learning enhances the process of learning to learn.

Transversal contents

Transversal content in education is called this because it runs through the entire school curriculum, including the subjects of all courses in the school, even when there are specific subjects that treat them with greater specialization.

Educational transversality enriches training work in such a way that it connects and articulates the knowledge of the different learning sectors and gives meaning to disciplinary learning, establishing connections between what is instructive and what is formative. Transversality seeks to see the entire school experience as an opportunity for learning to integrate its cognitive and formative dimensions, which has an impact not only on the established curriculum but also on the school culture and all the actors that are part of it.

Twitter

Twitter is a social networking and microblogging online service that allows users to send and receive text-based messages or posts of up to 140 characters called "tweets." The original message was limited to 140 characters, which was derived from the 160-character text message. The Twitter message was 140 characters plus 20 for the user's address (see SMS). In 2017, the number was doubled to 280 characters. After the online sign-up process, users can post their tweets by using a computer or other Twitter-compatible device, such as a smartphone, and can view tweets posted by other "followed" users.

 

[1] Impact of Entrepreneurship Education in Denmark - 2011. In L. Vestergaard, K. Moberg & C. Jørgensen (Eds.). Odense: The Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship - Young Enterprise

[2] https://casel.org/overview-sel/

[3] https://thriveworks.com/blog/empathic-responding-active-listening-counseling/ & http://downloads.lww.com/wolterskluwer_vitalstream_com/sample-content/9780781765985_Beardsley/samples/sampleChapter1.pdf

[4] Ignatius, Emmi; Marja Kokkonen (2007). "Factors contributing to verbal self-disclosure". Nordic Psychology. 59 (4): 362–391. doi:10.1027/1901-2276.59.4.362

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